Current Topics in CS: Rust's Rules in Other Languages

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Over the past few years, I've noticed a distinct change in the way I think about programming, which I attribute mostly to having learned Rust. While I've mostly noticed the difference in languages like C, it's also effected how I think about other more object oriented languages like Java and Python.

Concepts Rust Helped me Learn

What is ownership?

Each value in a program is "owned" by a single variable, and assigning from one variable to another "moves" that ownership.

Rust's Rules

Rust imposes a couple rules upon programmers that are enforced by the compiler, that to new Rust programmers might seem arbitrary.


Rule 1:

Each value has an Owner.

Rule 2:

There can only be one Owner at a time.

Rule 3:

When the Owner goes out of scope, the value will be deallocated.

Rule 4:

Ownership can be transferred by "moving" a value to another scope.

Why Track Ownership?

My programming background is mostly filled with Java. In garbage collected languages, there is no "ownership" but instead a value either can be referenced, or it can't (and should be GC'd).

In other non-gc languages like C++, memory has to be tracked so it can be deallocated.

Tracking ownership is extremely useful in manually memory managed languages. Thinking about ownership helps you remember what you allocated and exactly what you need to deallocate in the future.


Lifetimes are a concept that I don't think I've ever seen formally introduced in my classes, but it's been a concept that I've used throughout my programming journey. Lifetimes are the answer to the question "How long does this variable exist for?" (or "When is this variable valid/accessible/non-null/etc. ?").

Rust codifies lifetimes in the compiler, but in general, thinking about exactly when values are valid and when they are not is useful, especially in languages that don't have ways to track them for you.